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Jes˙s og hjˇnabandi­

═ aprÝl munu prestar Ůjˇ­kirkjunnar hittast ß svokalla­ri prestastefnu og ■ar munu ■eir me­al annars rŠ­a um hjˇnaband samkynhneig­ra. Ůar munu ■eir lÝklega vonandi hafa Ý huga ■Šr rannsˇknir sem nřjatestamentisfrŠ­ingurinn Clarence E. Glad ger­i fyrir Ůjˇ­kirkjuna. Hann athuga­i me­al annars hva­ Jes˙s haf­i um hjˇnabandi­ a­ segja. Ni­urst÷­ur hans eru mj÷g merkilegar og Úg vona a­ kirkjunnar menn standi vi­ or­ sÝn og fylgi meistara sÝnum frß Nasaret Ý einu og ÷llu.

Nokkrar ni­urst÷­ur ■essar ßhugaver­u greinar eru nefnilega algj÷rlega ß skj÷n vi­ ■a­ sem Ůjˇ­kirkjan bo­ar og framkvŠmir Ý dag.

═ ritger­inni kemur fram a­ Jes˙s leggur "bann vi­ ■vÝ a­ menn gangi aftur Ý hjˇnaband eftir skilna­" [1]. ═ L˙kasargu­spjalli, Mark˙sargu­spjalli og hjß Pßli postula er a­ finna heimildur um “afgerandi bann vi­ skilna­i[2] Jes˙s tˇk undir ■a­ sjˇnarmi­ a­ hjˇnaband kom ekki til greina ef br˙­urin var ekki hrein mey[3], og ef br˙­guminn skildi vi­ konuna ˙t af einhverju ÷­ru en ■essu, ■ß drřg­i hann hˇr[3]. Jes˙s tala­i neikvŠtt um fj÷lskylduna [4]. “Svo er a­ sjß sem krafan um eftirfylgni hafi Ý reynd ■řtt a­ menn ur­u a­ skera ß fj÷lskyldub÷nd sÝn.[5] og ■a­ “"vekur fur­u a­ markmi­ me­ starfi Jes˙ er sagt vera a­ koma ß upplausn innan fj÷lskyldunnar (Matt. 10.34-36)."[6]

Hva­ Štli prestarnir geri Ý ■essu? Ůeir segjast tr˙a ■vÝ a­ Jes˙s hafi veri­ enginn nema gu­ sjßlfur. Ůeir segja a­ Jes˙s sÚ fyrirmynd ■eirra Ý si­fer­ismßlum. Ůeir segjast fylgja ni­urst÷­um biblÝurannsˇkna.

╔g spßi ■vÝ a­ ■eir eigi eftir a­ halda ßfram hrŠsninni, gefa skili­ fˇlk saman aftur og gifta ˇhreinar meyjar.


[1] Clarence E. Glad, Matteusargu­spjall 19.3-15. ┴herslur og samhengi. Fj÷lskyldan, hjˇnaband, einlÝf og skÝrlÝfi Ý frumkristni, bls. 1: "┴ grundvelli tiltekins lesturs ß 1. Mˇsebˇk 2.18-24, sem hefur rˇttŠk ßhrif ß skilning annarra ßkvŠ­a Ý Mˇsel÷gum um skilna­ (v. 7), leggur Jes˙s enn rÝkari ßherslu ß skilna­arreglurnar me­ ■vÝ a­ leggja bann vi­ ■vÝ a­ menn gangi aftur Ý hjˇnaband eftir skilna­ (vv. 8-9)."
[2] ibid. bls. 2 "L˙kas, Mark˙s og Pßll geyma heimild um afgerandi bann vi­ skilna­i;"
[3] ibid. bls. 3 "Ůetta haf­i afdrifarÝkar aflei­ingar, sÚr Ý lagi vegna ■ess a­ Jes˙s setti fram all rˇttŠka endurskilgreiningu ß hˇrdˇmi Ý ■essu sambandi: „╔g segi y­ur: Sß sem skilur vi­ konu sÝna nema vegna porneia og kvŠnist annarri drřgir hˇr“ (moixeia) (19.9). Ţmsir hafa tali­ a­ me­ or­inu porneia sÚ hÚr veri­ a­ vÝsa til framhjßhalds konunnar. En Ý ■vÝ tilviki hef­i or­i­ moicheia lÝkega veri­ nota­. Sennilegra er a­ porneia vÝsi til lagaßkvŠ­isins Ý Tˇrunni sem heimila­i karli a­ hafna konu sem ß br˙­kaupsnˇttinni gat ekki sřnt fram ß a­ vera hrein mey (5. Mˇs. 22.13-21). SlÝk br˙­armey var s÷ku­ um a­ hafa leiki­ hlutverk skŠkjunnar (ekporneuo, LXX) Ý h˙si f÷­ur sÝns. Ef br˙­urin var ekki hrein mey kom hjˇnaband ekki til greina og tˇk Jes˙s undir ■a­ sjˇnarmi­."
[4] ibid. bls 14 "═ sÝnu gy­inglega samhengi hljˇta neikvŠ­ar umsagnir Jes˙ um fj÷lskylduna a­ hafa stu­a­ ßheyrendur."
[5] ibid. bls. 14
[6] ibid. bls. 14

Hjalti R˙nar Ëmarsson 29.03.2007
Flokka­ undir: ( Kristindˇmurinn )

Vi­br÷g­


ˇ­insmŠr - 29/03/07 09:20 #

ja, Úg held a­ spß ■Ýn gŠti bara vel rŠst...


Sindri Gu­jˇnsson - 29/03/07 09:26 #

Clarence hef­i gjarnan mßtt lesa fornar ˙tgßfur af Matteusuargu­spjalli ß hebresku, til a­ fß betri skilning ß or­um gy­ingsins Yeshua.

Kirkjufe­urnir tala um a­ til hafi veri­ hebresk ˙tgßfa af Matteusargu­spjalli. Matteusargu­spjall er einnig afar hebreskt ß grÝskunni, og fullt er af hebresku/aramÝsku slettum. Hvar veit nema fyrsta ˙tgßfan hafi veri­ ß hebresku e­a aramÝsku?

Til er hebresk ˙tgßfa af Matteusi skrifu­ ß 14 ÷ld af Shem Tob sem ß rŠtur a­ rekja til eldir texta. Um ■a­ segir Craig A. Evans (afsaki­ langar beinar tilvitnanir ß ensku):

it has been shown that Shem Tobĺs Hebrew Matthew is based upon neither the Vulgate nor Byzantine Greek, which, if it had been translated in the fourteenth century, it would have been. It is an important witness to a much earlier tradition, possibly one that is in some way related to a Hebrew version of Matthew that early Church Fathers discuss.

...

leading authorities in the study of early Judaism and Christianity, such as William Horbury and Daniel Harrington, agree with some of Howardĺs conclusions, thinking that Shem Tobĺs Hebrew Matthew is more than merely a medieval Hebrew translation of either Greek Matthew or Latin Matthew.

At important points Hebrew Matthew appears to reflect Jewish interests. We see this in what seems to be a higher regard for Torah, the Law of Moses. According to Greek Matthew, ôIt was also said, ĹWhoever divorces his wife, let him give her a certificate of divorce.ĺ But I say to you that every one who divorces his wife, except on the ground of unchastity, makes her an adulteress . . .ĺö (5:31-32). When it comes to applying the divorce legislation of Deut 24:1-4, the halakah of Greek Jesus stands in tension with rabbinic halakah. Major rabbinic figures allowed a man to divorce his wife, if for no more cause than a spoiled dinner (cf. m. Gittin 9:10; Sipre Deut. ž269 [on Deut 24:1]). 8 (That this halakah is indeed ancient, reaching back to the time of Jesus and earlier, is seen in Josephus (cf. Ant. 4.253; Life 426) and the sage Jesus ben Sira (cf. Sir 25:26).)

Not only does Jesusĺ stricter views on divorce stand in tension with the more lenient views of the rabbis, his halakah in Greek Matthew seems even to stand in tension with written Torah itself. Not so in Hebrew Matthew, however; for it reads differently in a very important way: ô. . . But I say to you that every one who divorces his wife IS TO GIVE HER A CERTIFICATE OF DIVORCE. But concerning adultery, he is the one who commits adultery . . .ö (emphasis added). Hebrew Matthew makes it clear that the law of Moses is to be followed. Moreover, the absence of the exception clause (cf. Mark 10:11-12; Luke 16:18; 1 Cor 7:10), which scholars Suspect may have been a later gloss, may support the antiquity of Hebrew Matthew.


Sindri Gu­jˇnsson - 29/03/07 09:29 #

Best a­ ■etta fylgi me­: http://www.craigaevans.com/Jewish%20Matthew.pdf


Hjalti R˙nar Ëmarsson (me­limur Ý Vantr˙) - 29/03/07 10:40 #

Sindri: Matteusargu­spjall var sami­ ß grÝsku, ■a­ byggir ß tveimur grÝskum heimildum, Mark˙sargu­spjalli og Q. Ůannig a­ fornar ˙tgßfur af Matteusargu­spjalli hljˇta a­ byggjast ß grÝsku ˙tgßfunni.

En mÚr finnst merkilegt a­ ■˙ viljir frekar treysta ßdeiluriti frß 14. ÷ld frekar en Matteusargu­spjalli, bara til ■ess a­ losna vi­ ■etta vandrŠ­alega vi­horf Jes˙. En allt Ý lagi, Jes˙s sag­i ■etta ekki, Matteusargu­spjall er ˇßrei­anlegt.


Aiwaz (me­limur Ý Vantr˙) - 29/03/07 10:53 #

Gˇ­ur skammtur af grŠnsßpu og nř batterÝ Ý Ljˇs Krists munu redda ■essu mßli.

Hins vegar ver­ur gaman a­ sjß hvernig Biskoppurinn snřr sÚr ˙t ˙r ■vÝ ef sam■ykkt ver­ur a­ gefa samkynhneig­a Ý hjˇnaband eftir digurbarkalegar yfirlřsingar hans um sorphaugana og lÝferni sem gangi gegn lÝfsins l÷gmßli. Ver­ur kallinn ekki bara a­ segja af sÚr ef ■a­ gerist?


Sindri Gu­jˇnsson - 29/03/07 16:46 #

Hjalti, "pointi­" var n˙ a­allega ■a­ a­ benda ß ■ß sta­reynd a­ Yeshua leyfir hjˇnaskilna­i me­ sama hŠtti og “Tˇran” Ý hebreskri ˙tgßfa af Matteusi, sem lÝklega er mj÷g g÷mul. Ůa­ er ßhugavert Ý samhengi vi­ ■essa umrŠ­a. Vegna gy­inglegs bakgrunnar Gu­spjallanna hringja hjß mÚr vi­v÷runarbj÷llur ■egar Yehsua ß a­ hafa haft sko­anir sem eru ß skj÷n vi­ hebresku biblÝuna, sem hann sjßlfur vitna­i i­ulega Ý sem yfirvald Ý si­fer­islegum og tr˙arlegum mßlum. Yehsua sag­i sjßlfur a­ Or­ Gu­s myndi aldrei undir lok lÝ­a o.s.frv. og ljˇst er a­ hann ß vi­ hebresku BiblÝuna. (╔g ˙tiloka ekki a­ um innskot e­a misklining sÚ a­ rŠ­a ■egar Yeshua e­a t.d Pßll sem sag­i a­ sÚrhver ritning (ss Ý hebresku biblÝunni) vŠri innblßsin a­ Gu­i, vir­ast vera ß ÷ndver­u mei­i vi­ hebresku biblÝuna).

Allt sem Úg les Ý N.T. reyni Úg a­ skilja Ý ljˇsi hebresku BiblÝunnar. T.d ■egar Pßll segir, ,,hinn rÚttlßti mun lifa fyrir tr˙” – ■arf a­ lesa ■a­ Ý ljˇsi Habbakuk 2:4, sem hann er a­ vitna Ý ,,hinn rÚttlßti mun lifa fyrir tr˙festi sÝna”.

LÝkega var Matteus skrifa­ ß grÝsku. Kenningin um a­ Gu­spjalli­ hafi upprunalega veri­ skrifa­ur ß hebresku er vissulega dj÷rf, en alls ekki frßleit.

Kirkjufe­ur s÷g­u Matteus vera samin ß hebresku og ■řddan yfir ß grÝsku. (■rßtt fyrir nota bene a­ ■eir vŠru klßrlega haldnir gy­ingafordˇmum) Hebreska lifandi tungumßl ß 1.÷ld Fullt af hebresku slettum Ý grÝska textanum af Matteusi

HÚr er dŠmi um afar hebreska mßlnotkun Ý Matteusi:

One example from the book is the phrases "good eye" and "bad eye" (Matthew 6:22, 23) used by Yeshua. From an English or Greek perspectives these phrases have no meaning but when translated back into Hebrew, "ayin tov" and "ayin ra", the meanings become clear as these very phrases are found in the Tenach (Old Testament) and mean "generous" and "stingy".

HŠgt er a­ finna miklu fleiri slÝk dŠmi Ý ■essari bˇk hÚr

David Flusser, Hebrew University

I am delighted that this book shares with the English-speaking public information that is well attested and well known to Israel scholars-namely, that Jesus' teaching was originally transmitted in Hebrew and therefore can be fully understood only if we know its Hebraic background.

Efni greinar ■innar er ekki uppruni Matteusar, svo Úg lŠt ■etta duga.


Matti (me­limur Ý Vantr˙) - 29/03/07 17:18 #

Afsaki­, smß ˙t˙rd˙r.

Sindri, kÝktu endilega ß lei­beiningarnar um Markdown rithßttinn (vÝsun er Ý kassanum fyrir ofan athugasemdaform) og nota­u "Sko­a" m÷guleikann. Ůa­ er h÷rku vinna a­ fara Ý gegnum svona athugasemd og laga vÝsanir og ˇl÷gleg t÷g.


Sindri Gu­jˇnsson - 29/03/07 22:04 #

Skal gert Matti. Takk kŠrlega fyrir a­ laga vÝsanirnar, innleggi­ var­ miklu skřrara fyrir viki­.

Loka­ hefur veri­ fyrir athugasemdir vi­ ■essa fŠrslu. Vi­ bendum ß spjalli­ ef ■i­ vilji­ halda umrŠ­um ßfram.